electrocardiography (ECG)

a method of recording the changes of currents and differences of functional potentials, produced and conducted by the impulse conduction system in the myocardium during its activity. On the basis of electrocardiogram, conclusions can be made regarding the heart rate and its disorders, the condition of heart conduction system and, indirectly, the condition of the myocardium, its blood supply and its coronary arteries.  The ECG examination allows accurate interpretation of other heart test results, i.e. the assessment of heart hemodynamics, the isotopic and ultrasound examinations, etc.


pathological histology, a branch of pathological anatomy, a science which studies microscopic phenomena occurring in body tissues and cells during various illnesses. It is very important in diagnostics, especially oncological diagnostics.


a device for the endoscopy of organs in the abdominal cavity, introduced into it by incision of the covers. It also allows the photography of chosen areas, the sampling for histopathological examination, as well as the carrying out of surgeries (usually of the liver, gall bladder, uterine adnexa or kidneys).

ultrasonography (USG)

the examination of internal organs using ultrasound waves. A diagnostic method based on the ultrasound echo phenomenon. Information gathered using this method can be presented on an oscilloscope screen in the form of impulses or in the form of a distribution image of normal and pathological tissues.


the examination of body cavities or deep and hard-to-reach organs using an endoscope with optical system and its own source of light. Endoscope also allows sampling of an organ or a tumor for histological examination, the excision of stones in the gall canal and pancreas canal, as well as removal of a foreign body from the trachea, bronchus and some sections of the digestive tract.


cancellation of pain sensation (analgesia) and the limitation or cancellation of reflexes in the operated area (hypo or areflexia).

Anesthesia can be:

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